Most recent publications:

Benam, K. D., Khoshamadi, H., Åm, M. K., Stavdahl, Ø., Gros, S., and Fougner, A. L., Identifiable Prediction Animal Model for the Bi-hormonal Intraperitoneal Artificial Pancreas, Journal of Process Control, Vol. 121, pp. 13–29, Jan 2023.

Halvorsen, M., Benam, K. D., Khoshamadi, H., and Fougner, A. L., Blood Glucose Level Prediction Using Subcutaneous Sensors for in Vivo Study: Compensation for Measurement Method Slow Dynamics Using a Kalman Filter Approach, IEEE Conference on Decision and Control 2022, Mexico, 6–9 Dec 2022.

Teigen, I. A., Åm, M. K., Riaz, M., Christiansen, S. C., and Carlsen, S. M., Vasodilatory effects of glucagon: A possible new approach to improve subcutaneous insulin absorption in artificial pancreas devices, Frontiers in Bioengeneering and Biotechnology, No. 986858, Vol. 10, Sep 2022.

Åm, M. K., Teigen ,I. A., Carlsen, S. M., and Christiansen, S. C., Severe bradycardia and hypotension in anaesthetized pigs: Possible interaction between octreotide, xylazine, and atropine: A case series, Scandinavian Journal of Laboratory Animal Sciences, in press.

Benam, K. D., Khoshamadi, H., Lema-Pérez, L., Gros, S., and Fougner, A. L., A Nonlinear State Observer for the Bi-Hormonal Intraperitoneal Artificial Pancreas, Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine & Biology Society (EMBC) 2022, Glasgow, Jul 2022.

Åm, M. K., Munkerud, E. Y., Berge, M. H., Christiansen, S. C., and Carlsen, S. M., The Effect of Glucagon on Local Subcutanous Blood Flow in Non-Diabetic Volunteers; A Proof-of-Concept Study, European Journal of Pharmacology, No. 175045, Vol. 926, Jul 2022.

Schwermer, S. F., Near Infrared Spectroscopy for Continuous Glucose Monitoring, ISBN ISBN 978-82-326-5518-2, in: Doctoral theses at NTNU (ISSN 1503-8181), 2022:184, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway, Jun 2022.

Teigen, I. A., Åm, M. K., Carlsen, S. M., and Christiansen, S. C., Pharmacokinetics of Glucagon after Intravenous, Intraperitoneal and Subcutaneous Administration in a Pig Model, Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology, Vol. 130, No. 6, pp. 623–631, Jun 2022.

Cheema, M. A., Siddiqui, S., and Rossi, P. S., Comparison of Different Classifiers for Early Meal Detection Using Abdominal Sounds, IEEE Sensor Array and Multichannel Signal Processing Workshop (SAM 2022), Trondheim, Norway, Jun 2022.

Benam, K. D., Khoshamadi, H., Gros, S., and Fougner, A. L., The Bihormonal Intraperitoneal Artificial Pancreas Achieves Fully Closed Loop Control in Anaesthetized Animals (ePoster), ATTD 2022, Barcelona, Apr 2022.

More publications:

List of APT's publications 2014–present.

List of older publications and patents by APT members.

— A list of all scientific publications from the APT group can be found in Cristin.

The Artificial Pancreas Trondheim (APT) research group was established in 2013 at The Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) in Trondheim. APT is a cross-disciplinary group of researchers with high competence in the fields of control engineering, biomedical engineering, biosensors, applied clinical research, endocrinology, anesthesia and intensive care medicine, pharmacology, biotechnology, mathematical modelling, biochemistry and chemometrics, as well as collaboration with relevant biosensor industry.

The long-term aim of APT’s research is to develop a robust closed-loop glucose control system for patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2 and for intensive-care patients, and to commercialize an artificial pancreas based on these results.

Read the Strategic statement of the Artificial Pancreas Trondheim (APT) research group. Includes vision and objectives.


At present the group holds the following participants:

Steering group:

S. M. Carlsen Professor Sven M. Carlsen, professor in clinical research at Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine at NTNU, and Consultant in endocrinology at St. Olavs Hospital. Thirty years of experience in the treatment of diabetes and has been involved in studies of glucose homeostasis in pregnancy. Prof. Carlsen is head of the APT research group.
R. Ellingsen Dr Reinold Ellingsen, former Senior Advisor at Department of Electronic Systems, NTNU. He also is a co-founder and board member of GlucoSet AS, a Trondheim based private company established in 2011 on the basis of a patented fiber optic intravascular glucose sensor, previously the Invivosense technology platform. Dr Ellingsen has been part of the steering group of APT since the beginning and although he is now retired, he continues to contribute to our team.
D. R. Hjelme Professor Dag Roar Hjelme, Department of Electronic Systems, NTNU. He has more than 25 years of experience from research and development of optical fiber sensor technology. From 2000 to 2010 he was CTO in OptoMed AS and InvivoSense AS working on in vivo application of optical fiber sensor technology. He was supervisor for Sven Tierney and Nils Kristian Skjærvold during their PhDs on glucose sensor development and in vivo sensor testing. He is also a co-founder of GlucoSet AS.
Ø. Stavdahl Professor Øyvind Stavdahl, Department of Engineering Cybernetics, NTNU. He has 6 years of experience in contract research, innovation and research management from SINTEF, is the co-founder and former general manager of a startup company, co-founder and former head of the Human Motor Control (HMC) research network in Trondheim. Stavdahl has a long history of participation in mainly medical-technical transdisciplinary research.
A. L. Fougner Associate Professor Anders Lyngvi Fougner, Department of Engineering Cybernetics, NTNU. MSc and PhD in Engineering Cybernetics, with specialization in medical cybernetics, myoelectric prosthesis control systems. Previously employed as a postdoc in Artificial Pancreas Trondheim during 2014–2017 with focus on modelling and system identification. Fougner is also coordinator of the APT group.
S. C. Christiansen Dr Sverre Christian Christiansen, Associate Professor at Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, NTNU, and Consultant in endocrinology at St. Olavs Hospital. Has worked with APT since November 2014. Has a PhD in epidemiology of venous thromboembolism from Leiden University Medical Center, Netherlands.


A. Aksnes Professor Astrid Aksnes, Department of Electronic Systems, NTNU. She has fifteen years of experience from SINTEF and NTNU in research and development of optical sensor technology. Since year 2000 she has been member of an EU Expert panel for evaluation and review of project proposals and reports for the EU framework programmes.
S. Gros Professor Sebastien Gros, Head of Dept. of Engineering Cybernetics, has his main research interest within model predictive control (MPC) and reinforcement learning. He is involved in APT's work on applying MPC/optimization in glucose control.
M. K. Aam Dr Marte Kierulf Åm received her from the Norwegian School of Veterinary Science in 2006. She worked as a PhD candidate for APT from January 2016 to Jan 2020. Her PhD thesis is entitled The intraperitoneal artificial pancreas: Glucose sensing and glucagon delivery and the public defense was in Oct 2020. Until end of 2022 she was working as a researcher and primarily focusing on closed-loop glucose control by use of intraperitoneal insulin and glucagon, and she was the main responsible for animal trials. Supervised by Sverre Chr. Christiansen, Sven Magnus Carlsen and Anders L. Fougner.
L. L. Pérez Dr Laura Lema Pérez is a postdoc at Dept. of Engineering Cybernetics since August 2021 and works on various types of signal processing and mathematical modeling related to APT.
H. Khoshamadi Hasti Khoshamadi is a PhD candidate at Dept. of Engineering Cybernetics and with APT since March 2019. Received her MSc degree in Electrical Engineering (Control) from K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran, November 2018. Her focus is on mathematical modeling and system identification. Supervised by Anders Lyngvi Fougner and Øyvind Stavdahl.
P. Patil Pallavi Ajay Patil holds a M.Tech. degree in Biomedical Instrumentation from College of Engineering Pune, India. Her master thesis dealt with utilisation of an ultra-wideband sensor technology for X-ray Tube detection alignment. She is a PhD candidate at Dept. of Engineering Cybernetics since September 2019, where she studies early meal onset detection by analysis of body sounds and other sensor modalities. Supervised by Anders Lyngvi Fougner and Øyvind Stavdahl.
K. D. Benam Karim Davari Benam received his MSc degree in Electrical engineering Applied to Control systems from Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran polytechnic), Iran, January 2019. He wrote his MSc thesis on “Controlling of a flexible needle inside soft tissue for surgeon assistance robots”. He is a PhD candidate with APT since January 2020 and studies model predictive control applied in diabetes. Supervised by Anders Lyngvi Fougner and Sebastien Gros.
I. A. Teigen Ingrid Anna Teigen received her Cand.Med. degree from NTNU in 2015. She has worked as a specialty registrar in clinical pharmacology at Haukeland University Hospital in Bergen, before starting as a PhD candidate for APT in December 2019. She is primarily focusing on early meal onset detection in patients with diabetes mellitus type I. Supervised by Sven Magnus Carlsen and Sverre Christiansen.
M. Riaz Misbah Riaz received her Doctor of Medicine degree from Pakistan in 2016. She later did her MSc in Biomedicine from UiT, Norway. She had been working as a Researcher with Medical Imaging Research group at UiT before starting her PhD with APT research group in March 2021. She is primarily investigating properties of body tissue in patients with diabetes mellitus type 1. Supervised by Sverre Christiansen.
M. K. Wolff Miriam Kopperstad Wolff pursued her term project and MSc thesis at Troll Labs (in Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering) during Fall 2020 and Spring 2021. Her thesis was entitled "Comparison of Various Insulin Pumps with Respect to Accuracy of the Insulin Delivery." Since February 2022, she is a PhD candidate at Department of ICT and Natural Sciences at the NTNU campus in Ålesund, in collaboration with APT. Supervised by Rune Volden, Martin Steinert and Anders Fougner.
P. Bösch Patrick Bösch, BSc in Systems Engineering with a specialization in Biomedical Engineering. He graduated from the Zürich University of Applied Science (ZHAW) in Winterthur, Switzerland in 2015. Prior to that he did an apprenticeship as an electrician in Switzerland. Patrick worked with APT for 8 weeks in summer 2015 during an IAESTE internship. Since February 2016 he works for APT as a Staff engineer in the function of a Development Engineer. He is primarily focused on design and prototyping of novel instrumentation based on optical spectroscopy and other relevant sensing modalities for the measurement of glucose in peritoneal fluid, as well as the associated insulin infusion mechanism and related components and systems. He is also a part-time MSc student in Cybernetics and Robotics.

Former employees of APT:

Listed here.


T. Rølvåg Professor Terje Rølvåg, Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, NTNU. He holds a MSc and a PhD within finite element dynamics of elastic mechanisms from NTH. His working experience includes Sintef Production Engineering, Sintef Materials Technology, Fedem Technology AS, ColiCot and TRAC, the latter in combination with an adjunct professorship at Department of Engineering Design and Materials (IPM), NTNU. Since 2003 he has been a full time professor within the Engineering Design group at IPM. Rølvåg has 30 years of experience in Product Development with a focus on Computer Aided Engineering. His role is to develop and optimize AP concepts with respect to design and functionality for experimental and commercial use.
S. W. Omholt Professor Stig William Omholt, Faculty of Medicine at NTNU, has a long experience in mathematical modeling, systems biology and experimental biology, and in leading multidisciplinary projects involving the concerted operation of experimental and theoretical elements.
O. Spigset Professor Olav Spigset, M.D., PhD is Senior Consultant, Department of Clinical Pharmacology, St. Olavs Hospital and Professor of Clinical Pharmacology, NTNU. He has extensive research experience in clinical pharmacology with focus on pharmacokinetics, pharmacogenetics and drug safety, and has published more than 250 scientific articles. Among other tasks, he is Editor of a Norwegian textbook in pharmacology, has created a national internet-based drug interaction database ( and is head of the Editorial board of the Norwegian medicines handbook (Norsk legemiddelhåndbok).
M. A. Lundteigen Professor Mary Ann Lundteigen, Dept. of Engineering Cybernetics, has her main research interest within functional and failure analysis, functional safety, reliability analysis, safe design principles with main application area with safety-instrumented systems. Has been involved in risk analysis also with Artificial Pancreas Trondheim.
H. Aa. Martens Adjunct Professor Harald Aa. Martens, holds a (M.Sc) in biochemistry and dr.techn. in chemometrics. He has 40 years of experience in multivariate datamodelling, in particular for calibration of multichannel instruments to eliminate unexpected interference problems in e.g. biospectroscopy, for interdisciplinary, statistically valid data analysis linking “hard” and “soft” data, and for metamodelling to facilitate high-dimensional nonlinear dynamic models, in particular of complex human and animal physiology. He has published more than 200 papers and several books on these topics. He is currently affiliated with the Department of Engineering Cybernetics at NTNU.
N. K. Skjærvold Dr Nils Kristian Skjærvold, MD, PhD, Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, St. Olavs Hospital, and Postdoctoral research fellow at Dept. of Circulation and Medical Imaging at NTNU. Skjærvold has clinical experience in all aspects of anesthesia and intensive care medicine as well as in experimental studies in large animals. PhD (Nov 2012) entitled “Automated blood glucose control – development and testing of an artificial endocrine pancreas using a novel intravascular glucose monitor and a new approach to insulin pharmacology”. Since January 2015 he is a postdoctoral research fellow on a topic related to APT (Personalized care of critically-ill patients with time-series analysis of oscillating physiology). Currently funded by Samarbeidsorganet (the Liaison Committee between the Central Norway Regional Health Authority and NTNU). Member of the Human monitoring and modelling (HUM) team at NTNU.
P. Aadahl Professor Petter Aadahl, professor in anestesiology at Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging, NTNU. Consultant and former Research Director at St. Olavs Hospital. Long standing interest in glucose monitoring in intensive care units (ICU). Supervisor for Nils Kristian Skjærvold during his PhD on a new glucose sensor.

Industrial partners:

Logo for Prediktor Artificial Pancreas Trondheim has a collaboration with Prediktor AS, a Norwegian company based in Fredrikstad.

Students, Fall 2022:

H. Isnes Helene Isnes pursues her term project at Dept. of Engineering Cybernetics during Fall 2022. Her project is related to glucose control and optimization. Supervised by Anders Lyngvi Fougner, Karim Davari Benam and Hasti Khoshamadi.
A. S. Seeberg Audun Svinø Seeberg pursues his term project at Dept. of Engineering Cybernetics during Fall 2022. His project is related to acoustic signal processing and pattern recognition for medical applications. Supervised by Anders Lyngvi Fougner and Pallavi Patil.

Former employees and students of APT:

Listed here.


Contact: Sven M. Carlsen
Address: Dept. of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, NTNU, Olav Kyrres gate 10, NO-7491 Trondheim, Norway
Phone: +47 72571109
Mobile phone: +47 91769528

Logo for Dept. of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, NTNU

Logo for Dept. of Engineering Cybernetics, NTNU

Logo for Dept. of Electronic Systems, NTNU

Logo for NTNU TTO
Logo for Sintef AS
Logo for Centre Digital Life Norway (DLN)

Logo for Helse Midt-Norge (Regional Health Authority of Mid Norway)

Logo for St. Olavs Hospital